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TED演講 | 你有拖延癥么?
2020-03-25 20:42   作者:新航道   閱讀量:

  你有拖延癥嗎?拖延癥者的內心是怎么想的?他們的大腦是怎樣運作的? 本次TED演講者Tim Urban先生將用詼諧的語言,貼切的比喻和貼近你我生活的故事來為我們剖析這些問題的答案。這是一個令所有人都會感同身受又倍受啟發的TED演講,不容錯過。

  中英文演講稿

  So in college, I was a government major, which means I had to write a lot of papers. Now, when a normal student writes a paper, they might spread the work out a little like this. So, you know --you get started maybe a little slowly, but you get enough done in the first week that, with some heavier days later on, everything gets done, things stay civil.

  在大學,我讀的是政府專業。也就是說,我需要寫很多的論文。一般的學生寫論文時,他們可能會這樣安排:(看圖)你可能開頭會慢一點,但第一周有這些已經足夠。后期再一點點的增加,最后任務完成,非常的有條理。

  And I would want to do that like that. That would be the plan. I would have it all ready to go, but then, actually, the paper would come along, and then I would kind of do this.

  我也想這么做,所以一開始也是這么計劃的。我做了完美的安排(看圖),但后來,實際上論文任務一直出現,我就只能這樣了(看圖)。

 image.png

  And that would happen every single paper. But then came my 90-page senior thesis, a paper you re supposed to spend a year on. And I knew for a paper like that, my normal work flow was not an option. It was way too big a project. So I planned things out, and I decided I kind of had to go something like this. This is how the year would go.

  我的每一篇論文都是這種情況,直到我長達90頁的畢業論文任務,這篇論文理應花一年的時間來做,我也知道這樣的工作,我先前的工作方式是行不通的,這個項目太大,所以我制定了計劃。決定按照這樣的方式工作,這樣來安排我這一年。

  So I d start off light, and I d bump it up in the middle months, and then at the end, I would kick it up into high gear just like a little staircase. How hard could it be to walk up the stairs? No big deal, right?

  開頭我會輕松一點,中期任務逐漸增加,到最后,我再全力沖刺一下。整體是這種階梯式安排,一層一層走樓梯有多難?所以沒什么大不了的,是吧?

  But then, the funniest thing happened. Those first few months? They came and went, and I couldn t quite do stuff. So we had an awesome new revised plan.

  And then --But then those middle months actually went by, and I didn t really write words, and so we were here.And then two months turned into one month, which turned into two weeks.

  但后來,好笑的事情出現了,頭幾個月時光匆匆而逝,我還沒有來得及動工,所以我們明智的調整了計劃。然后,中間的幾個月也過去了,我還是一個字也沒有動,眨眼就到了這里,然后兩個月變成了一個月,再變成了2周。

  And one day I woke up with three days until the deadline, still not having written a word, and so I did the only thing I could: I wrote 90 pages over 72 hours, pulling not one but two all-nighters -- humans are not supposed to pull two all-nighters -- sprinted across campus, dove in slow motion, and got it in just at the deadline.

  一天我醒來,發現離交稿日期只剩3天了,但我還一個字都沒寫。我別無選擇,只能在接下來的72小時里,連續通宵兩個晚上趕論文——一般人不應連續通宵兩個晚上。90頁趕出來后,我飛速沖過校園,像電影中的特寫慢鏡頭一樣,恰好在截止日期前的最后一刻交上。

  I thought that was the end of everything. But a week later I get a call, and it s the school. And they say, "Is this Tim Urban?" And I say, "Yeah." And they say, "We need to talk about your thesis." And I say, "OK." And they say, "It s the best one we ve ever seen."

  我以為事情就這么完了,但一周后,我接到一個電話,是學校打來的。他們說:“你是Tim Urban嗎?”我說:“是。”他們說:“我們要說一說你的畢業論文。”我說:“好啊。”他們說:“這是我見過最棒的論文。”

  That did not happen.It was a very, very bad thesis. I just wanted to enjoy that one moment when all of you thought, "This guy is amazing!" No, no, it was very, very bad.

  當然不可能。論文非常非常的差勁。我只想享受下你們對我的崇拜,想聽你們說:“這老兄太厲害了。”沒有,其實寫的非常差勁。

  Anyway, today I m a writer-blogger guy. I write the blog Wait But Why.And a couple of years ago, I decided to write about procrastination. My behavior has always perplexed the non-procrastinators around me, and I wanted to explain to the non-procrastinators of the worldwhat goes on in the heads of procrastinators, and why we are the way we are.

  不管怎樣,我現在成為了一個博客寫手,經營著“wait but why”這個博客。幾年前,我決定寫寫拖延這件事。我的行為方式總讓身邊非拖延者感到不能理解。我很想對世界上非拖延者的人解釋一下,我們拖延癥患者的腦子是什么樣的,為什么我們會拖延。

  Now, I had a hypothesisthat the brains of procrastinators were actually different than the brains of other people. And to test this, I found an MRI lab that actually let me scan both my brain and the brain of a proven non-procrastinator,so I could compare them. I actually brought them here to show you today.

  首先我假設,拖延癥患者的大腦實際上和其他人的大腦不一樣。為了驗證這一點,我找了家核磁共振實驗室,給我和另一個確定是非拖延癥的人,進行了腦部掃描,我好將二者進行對比,今天我帶到現場,給大家展示一下。

  I want you to take a look carefully to see if you can notice a difference. I know that if you re not a trained brain expert, it s not that obvious, but just take a look, OK? So here s the brain of a non-procrastinator. Now ... here s my brain.

  我希望大家仔細觀察,看能不能注意到差異。我知道大家并非專業的大腦專家,較難看出他們的差異,但大家不妨先看一眼,如何?這張是非拖延者的大腦,這張是我的大腦。

  ▼ 正常人的大腦

  image.png

  ▼ 拖延癥者的大腦

image.png

  There is a difference. Both brains have a Rational Decision-Maker in them, but the procrastinator s brain also has an Instant Gratification Monkey. Now, what does this mean for the procrastinator? Well, it means everything s fine until this happens.

  兩張是有一點不同,兩個大腦都有一個理性決策人,但在拖延癥患者的大腦里,還有一個及時行樂的猴子。那這對拖延癥患者來說意味著什么呢? 這意味著平時沒什么異樣。

  [This is a perfect time to get some work done.] [Nope!] So the Rational Decision-Maker will make the rational decision to do something productive, but the Monkey doesn t like that plan, so he actually takes the wheel, and he says, "Actually, let s read the entire Wikipedia page of the Nancy Kerrigan/ Tonya Harding scandal, because I just remembered that that happened.

  但一旦發生了以下的情況,理性的決策人做出理性的決策,要去做一些實際的工作,但猴子不喜歡這個計劃,所以他搶過方向盤,說道:“說實話,我們還是去維基百科上查一查NKTH的丑聞吧。”因為我剛想起來還發生過這件事。

  Then --Then we re going to go over to the fridge, to see if there s anything new in there since 10 minutes ago. After that, we re going to go on a YouTube spiral that starts with videos of Richard Feynman talking about magnets and ends much, much later with us watching interviews with Justin Bieber s mom.

  然后我們會去翻冰箱,看看和十分鐘前相比有沒有什么新的東西。然后我們去youtobe看一連串的視頻,從Richard Feynman談論磁鐵開始,一直到很久很久之后看到一個Justin Bieber媽媽的訪談才結束。以上這些事情都得花時間,所以我們今天沒有時間再來工作了。

  "All of that s going to take a while, so we re not going to really have room on the schedule for any work today. Sorry!" Now, what is going on here? The Instant Gratification Monkey does not seem like a guy you want behind the wheel. He lives entirely in the present moment.

  所以,到底發生了什么?這個及時行樂的猴子并非你,希望是控制方向的人,他完全生活在當下.

  He has no memory of the past, no knowledge of the future, and he only cares about two things: easy and fun.

  5:15Now, in the animal world, that works fine. If you re a dog and you spend your whole life doing nothing other than easy and fun things, you re a huge success!

  沒有過去的記憶,也沒有未來的概念。他只關注兩件事情:簡單和開心。在動物界,這兩點完全沒有問題。如果你是一條狗,一輩子只追求一些簡單和快樂的事,那就是巨大的成功了。

  And to the Monkey, humans are just another animal species. You have to keep well-slept, well-fed and propagating into the next generation, which in tribal times might have worked OK. But, if you haven t noticed, now we re not in tribal times.

  但對猴子來說,人類是另外一個物種,你得正常睡眠、規律飲食、繁衍后代。在原始部落時代,這也沒太大問題。但你注意到沒有,現在并非原始部落時代。

  We re in an advanced civilization, and the Monkey does not know what that is. Which is why we have another guy in our brain, the Rational Decision-Maker, who gives us the ability to do things no other animal can do. We can visualize the future. We can see the big picture.We can make long-term plans. And he wants to take all of that into account. And he wants to just have us do whatever makes sense to be doing right now.

  我們生活在一個現代文明社會中,而猴子完全不能理解這是什么意思,這也是為什么我們大腦中會有另外一個,理性的決策者,他使人類有能力做到其他動物無法做到的事情。我們能設想未來,可以從大局出發,制定長期計劃,他可以把所有這些事考慮在內。希望讓我們做出最合理的事情.

  Now, sometimes it makes sense to be doing things that are easy and fun, like when you re having dinner or going to bed or enjoying well-earned leisure time. That s why there s an overlap. Sometimes they agree. But other times, it makes much more senseto be doing things that are harder and less pleasant, for the sake of the big picture. And that s when we have a conflict.

  有時,做一些簡單開心的事情是很合理的,比如吃飯睡覺、享受贏得的休閑時光,所以二者也有重疊的部分。有時二者是一致的,但有些時候,從長遠的角度來看,一些更困難不開心的事情,才是合理的事情,所以就出現了沖突。

  And for the procrastinator, that conflict tends to end a certain way every time, leaving him spending a lot of time in this orange zone, an easy and fun place that s entirely out of the Makes Sense circle. I call it the Dark Playground.

  對拖延癥患者來說,每次這種沖突到最后的結果都一樣,都讓他在這片橙色區域里耗費大量時間,這里很簡單很開心,但完全不在合理圈的范圍內,我將這個區域稱為黑暗操場。

  Now, the Dark Playground is a place that all of you procrastinators out there know very well. It s where leisure activities happen at times when leisure activities are not supposed to be happening. The fun you have in the Dark Playground isn t actually fun, because it s completely unearned, and the air is filled with guilt, dread, anxiety, self-hatred -- all of those good procrastinator feelings.

  這個黑暗操場,所有的拖延者患者都應該很熟悉,在這里發生了許多,本不應該在此時進行的休閑活動。你在黑暗操場獲得的樂趣,實際并不有趣,因為這并非你應得的。這里的空氣充滿了內疚、恐懼、焦慮和自我憎恨——這些都是拖延癥患者常有的情緒。

  And the question is, in this situation, with the Monkey behind the wheel, how does the procrastinator ever get himself over here to this blue zone, a less pleasant place, but where really important things happen?

  所以問題是,在猴子掌握方向盤的情況下,拖延癥患者如何進入這邊的藍色區域呢?這里雖然沒有這么舒適,但進行的事情都非常重要。

  Well, turns out the procrastinator has a guardian angel, someone who s always looking down on him and watching over him in his darkest moments -- someone called the Panic Monster. Now, the Panic Monster is dormant most of the time, but he suddenly wakes up anytime a deadline gets too close or there s danger of public embarrassment, a career disaster or some other scary consequence. And importantly, he s the only thing the Monkey is terrified of.

  原來,拖延癥患者都有一個守護天使,一個在他黑暗時刻,一直注視和關注他的人,這個人稱為驚慌怪獸。驚慌怪獸大部分時間都處于休眠狀態,但當臨近截止日期或有當眾出丑的危險時,或出現職業災難或者其他恐怖情況時,他就會突然醒來,并且最重要的是,他是猴子唯一害怕的東西。

  Now, he became very relevant in my life pretty recently, because the people of TED reached out to me about six months agoand invited me to do a TED Talk.Now, of course, I said yes. It s always been a dream of mine to have done a TED Talk in the past. But in the middle of all this excitement, the Rational Decision-Maker seemed to have something else on his mind.

  最近他也經常出現在我的生活中,因為6個月前,TED的人找到我,邀請我做TED的演講,我當然同意了。我一直有個夢想,希望可以“曾經”做過一次TED演講。但在興奮之余,理性決策人似乎另有看法。

  He was saying, "Are we clear on what we just accepted? Do we get what s going to be now happening one day in the future? We need to sit down and work on this right now."

  他說:“我們清楚剛才答應了什么嗎?我們知道未來哪一天會發生什么事情嗎?我們應該坐下來馬上開始工作。”

  And the Monkey said, "Totally agree, but let s just open Google Earth and zoom in to the bottom of India, like 200 feet above the ground, and scroll up for two and a half hours til we get to the top of the country, so we can get a better feel for India." So that s what we did that day.

  猴子說:“完全同意你的看法,但我們先打開google地圖,在印度的最南邊放大,然后花兩個半小時的時間從大約200英尺的高度,慢慢往上滑,直到印度的最北邊,這樣可以更好地了解印度這個國家。”所以那一天我們就這么做了。

  As six months turned into four and then two and then one, the people of TED decided to release the speakers. And I opened up the website, and there was my face staring right back at me.

  很快6個月變成了4個月,然后2個月,然后1個月,TED工作人員發布了演講者的照片,我打開網址,看到自己的臉,我的雙眼直勾勾的看著我。

  And guess who woke up? So the Panic Monster starts losing his mind, and a few seconds later, the whole system s in mayhem. And the Monkey -- remember, he s terrified of the Panic Monster -- boom, he s up the tree! And finally,finally, the Rational Decision-Maker can take the wheel and I can start working on the talk.

  大家猜猜這個時候誰醒了。驚慌怪獸像發瘋了一樣,幾秒種后,整個系統全亂套了。這時候猴子——還記得嗎,他是最害怕驚慌怪獸的,一溜煙竄到了樹上!終于,理性決策者重新掌回了方向盤,我也終于可以為這個演講開始工作了。

  Now, the Panic Monster explains all kinds of pretty insane procrastinator behavior, like how someone like me could spend two weeks unable to start the opening sentence of a paper, and then miraculously find the unbelievable work ethic to stay up all night and write eight pages. And this entire situation, with the three characters -- this is the procrastinator s system. It s not pretty, but in the end, it works.

  所以,驚慌怪獸解釋了拖延癥患者的很多奇葩行為,比如像我,有時候整整兩周,都沒法寫出論文的第一句話,會突然奇跡般的找到職業操守,通宵整晚,把8頁論文都給寫了出來,以上三個角色的整體情況,就是拖延癥患者的系統,雖然并不美好,但最終也有效果。

  This is what I decided to write about on the blog a couple of years ago. When I did, I was amazed by the response. Literally thousands of emails came in, from all different kinds of people from all over the world, doing all different kinds of things. These are people who were nurses, bankers, painters, engineers and lots and lots of PhD students.

  這是我幾年前決定在博客上和大家分享的內容。寫成之后,大家的反應很讓我驚訝,我收到了上千封的郵件,寄信人來自世界各地,從事各行各業的不同朋友,有護士、銀行家、畫家、工程師,還有很多很多的博士生。

  And they were all writing, saying the same thing: "I have this problem too." But what struck me was the contrast between the light tone of the post and the heaviness of these emails. These people were writing with intense frustration about what procrastination had done to their lives, about what this Monkey had done to them. And I thought about this, and I said, well, if the procrastinator s system works, then what s going on? Why are all of these people in such a dark place?

  他們都在寫同一句話:“我也有這個問題。”但真正讓我感到觸動的,是我博客的輕描淡寫,和郵件的沉重文風之間的強烈對比。這些讀者以非常沮喪的語言,告訴我拖延對他們的生活造成了哪些影響,告訴我猴子對他們都做了些什么。我思考了一下,問道,既然拖延癥患者的系統是有效果的,那到底哪不對呢?為什么這些人都置身黑暗之中呢?

  Well, it turns out that there s two kinds of procrastination. Everything I ve talked about today, the examples I ve given, they all have deadlines. And when there s deadlines, the effects of procrastination are contained to the short term because the Panic Monster gets involved.

  原來,拖延分為兩種,我今天所說的拖延和所舉的例子,都是有截止日期的。一旦有了截止日期,拖延的影響會被限制在一定時期內,因為后期驚慌怪獸會出現。

  But there s a second kind of procrastination that happens in situations when there is no deadline. So if you wanted a career where you re a self-starter -- something in the arts, something entrepreneurial -- there s no deadlines on those things at first, because nothing s happening, not until you ve gone out and done the hard work to get momentum, get things going.

  但還有第二種拖延,這種拖延是沒有截止日期的,所以如果你想在一些領域內自學成才——比如學個藝術或者創個業——這些事情開始都是沒有截止日期的,因為開始不會有什么變化,直到你拼盡全力,辛勤投入,才會有一點起色,你才能看到進展。

  There s also all kinds of important things outside of your career that don t involve any deadlines, like seeing your family or exercising and taking care of your health, working on your relationship or getting out of a relationship that isn t working.

  除了工作之外,還有很多其他重要的事情,也是沒有截止日期的,比如看望家人、鍛煉身體、保持健康、維系感情,或者從一段不合適的感情中抽身。

  Now if the procrastinator s only mechanism of doing these hard things is the Panic Monster, that s a problem, because in all of these non-deadline situations, the Panic Monster doesn t show up. He has nothing to wake up for, so the effects of procrastination, they re not contained; they just extend outward forever.

  如果說拖延癥患者處理這些困難的唯一機制,是驚慌怪獸的話,那就有問題了,因為在這些沒有截止日期的情況下,驚慌怪獸是不會現身的,沒有喚醒他的條件,所以這一類拖延的后果是沒有限制的,他們會不斷地肆意延伸。

  And it s this long-term kind of procrastination that s much less visible and much less talked about than the funnier, short-term deadline-based kind. It s usually suffered quietly and privately. And it can be the source of a huge amount of long-term unhappiness, and regrets.

  和有截止日期的好笑的短期拖延相比,這種長時期的拖延,更不易被人察覺,也更少被談論到,他常常在無聲無息中折磨著人們,可以說是大部分長期抑郁和悔恨的根源。

  And I thought, that s why those people are emailing, and that s why they re in such a bad place. It s not that they re cramming for some project. It s that long-term procrastination has made them feel like a spectator, at times, in their own lives. The frustration is not that they couldn t achieve their dreams; it s that they weren t even able to start chasing them.

  我想,這也是為什么這些人會寫信,為什么狀態這么差的原因吧。他們并非在為某個項目臨時抱佛腳,這種長期拖延使他們有時感覺,自己只是生活的旁觀者,讓他們沮喪的不是他們沒有實現夢想,而是他們甚至還沒有開始追尋夢想。

  So I read these emails and I had a little bit of an epiphany -- that I don t think non-procrastinators exist.That s right -- I think all of you are procrastinators. Now, you might not all be a mess, like some of us, and some of you may have a healthy relationship with deadlines, but remember: the Monkey s sneakiest trick is when the deadlines aren t there.

  我讀著這些來信,忽然有一種頓悟——我覺得非拖延者是不存在的,沒錯,我認為你們所有人都是拖延者,當然你們可能不像,我們有些人這么混亂。你們有些人可能與截止日期保持著良性的關系。但記住:猴子最狡猾的伎倆,發生在沒有截止日期的時候。

  Now, I want to show you one last thing. I call this a Life Calendar. That s one box for every week of a 90-year life. That s not that many boxes, especially since we ve already used a bunch of those. So I think we need to all take a long, hard look at that calendar.

  最后我想給大家看一個東西,我稱之為“生命日歷”。這里的每一個格子都代表90年生命中的一周,格子數并不是很多,尤其我們已經用掉了許多。我想我們需要好好花時間,認真看看這個日歷。

  We need to think about what we re really procrastinating on, because everyone is procrastinating on something in life. We need to stay aware of the Instant Gratification Monkey. That s a job for all of us. And because there s not that many boxes on there, it s a job that should probably start today. Well, maybe not today, but ...You know. Sometime soon.

  我們需要想一下,我們真正在拖延的是什么,因為每個人在生命中都有拖延一些東西,我們需要警惕及時行樂的猴子,這是我們所有人的任務。因為這里的格子數并不多,所以或許我們今天就應該行動起來,或許不一定是今天,而是盡快。

  Thank you.

  (Applause)


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