Make the paragraph the unit of composition: one paragraph to each topic.不同的段落構成文章，每個段落僅傳遞一個觀點。
2. As a rule, begin each paragraph with a topic sentence; end it in conformity with the beginning.
A. the topic sentence comes at or near the beginning;主題句前置
B. the succeeding sentences explain or establish or develop the statement made in the topic sentence;
C. the final sentence either emphasizes the thought of the topic sentence or states some important consequence.末尾句或對主題句進行強調，或闡述主題句帶來的結果。
3. Use the active voice.主動句永遠比被動句直接有力。
Eg: There were a great number of dead leaves lying on the ground = Dead leaves covered the ground. （清晰主動）Eg: The reason that he left college was that his health became impaired. = Failing health compelled him to leave college. （簡潔有力）Eg: It was not long before he was very sorry that he had said what he had. = He soon repented his words.
4. Put statements in positive form.以肯定的形式表達否定的意思, 避免使用平淡、毫無色彩，猶豫不決和含糊其辭的語言。
Eg：He was not very often on time. = He usually came late. Eg: He did not think that studying Latin was much use. = He thought the study of Latin useless. Eg: The taming of the Shrew is rather weak in spots. Shakespeare does not portray Katharine as a very admirable character, nor does Bianca remain long in memory as an important character in Shakespeare’s works. = The women in The Taming of the Shrew are unattractive. Katharine is disagreeable, Bianca insignificant.
5. Omit needless words.刪除冗詞。
Vigorous writing is concise. A sentence should contain no unnecessary words, a paragraph no unnecessary sentences, for the same reason that a drawing should have no unnecessary lines and a machine no unnecessary parts. This requires not that the writer make all his sentences short, or that he avoid all detail and treat his subjects only in outline, but that every word tell. 有力的寫作一定簡潔。Owing to the fact that =Since (because) In spite of the fact that =Though (although) Call your attention to the fact that =Remind you (notify you) The fact that he had not succeeded =His failure
6. Avoid a succession of loose sentences.尋找語言的邏輯關系，通過who, which, when, where, and while 這些詞把句子串起來。
7. Express co-ordinate ideas in similar form.
Eg: Formerly, science was taught by the textbook method, while now the laboratory method is employed. Parallel structure: Formerly, science was taught by the textbook method; now it is taught by the laboratory method.
8. Keep related words together.詞的位置決定詞的關系，所以遵循‘物以類聚’，意思關聯緊密的詞放在一塊。
Eg: Wordsworth, in the fifth book of The Excursion, gives a minute description of this church. Eg: In the fifth book of the Excursion, Wordsworth gives a minute description of this church. (狀語前置，主謂毗鄰)
Eg: There was a look in his eye that boded mischief. Eg: In his eye was a look that boded mischief. (名詞look先行，關系詞that緊隨)
9. In summaries, keep to one tense.總結通常使用現在時態，如果使用過去時，請保持時態一致。
10. Place the emphatic words of a sentence at the end.欲擒故縱的圓周句（periodic sentence）中，強調信息后置。Eg: Four centuries ago, Christopher Columbus, one of the Italian mariners whom the decline of their own republics had put at the service of the world and of adventure, seeking for Spain a westward passage to the Indies as setoff against the achievements of Portuguese discoverers, lighted on America. Eg: With these hopes and in this belief I would urge you, laying aside all hindrance, thrusting away all private aims, to devote yourselves unswervingly and unflinchingly to the vigorous and successful prosecution of this war.